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ADMIN posted a blog entry in FDF Online NewsHumans have screwed up the Earth's environment so much so that the planet's sixth mass extinction may become a reality by the year 2100. After carefully analysing all of Earth's five previous mass extinctions, a prominent mathematician has come to the conclusion that the next one is just around the corner. In the last 540 million years, our planet has experienced five of these devastating ecological events, and almost all of them were caused due to the disruption of the cycling of carbon through the oceans and then the atmosphere. © Nat Geo The study, Thresholds of catastrophe in the Earth system, was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Daniel H. Rothman, professor of geophysics at MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. Using a mathematical formula based on the rate and magnitude of change in the carbon cycle, Rothman identified a total of 31 events in the last 542 million years in which a significant change occurred in Earth's carbon cycle. © How It Works Magazine With the study, Rothman also identified the “thresholds of catastrophe” in the carbon cycle that, if exceeded, would cause an unstable environment, which will ultimately lead to mass extinction. According to his analysis of these mass extinctions, he calculated how much extra carbon could be added to the oceans – which absorb vast amounts from the atmosphere – before triggering a sixth one, and the answer was alarming, to say the least. The scary figure is 310 gigatons, which is just 10 gigatons above the figure expected to be emitted by 2100 under the best-case scenario forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The worst-case scenario would result in more than 500 gigatons. © Youtube Explaining the conclusion of the study, Rothman said this isn't to say that a catastrophe will happen tomorrow. “It's saying that, if left unchecked, the carbon cycle would move into a realm which would be no longer stable, and would behave in a way that would be difficult to predict. In the geologic past, this type of behaviour is associated with mass extinction.” Apparently, about 50% of the number of animals that once shared the planet with humans have been wiped out already, and we can expect to see even more powerful assault on biodiversity in the next two decades. Rothman said that his study highlights the imperative of controlling carbon emissions.
ADMIN posted a blog entry in Geo News BlogWASHINGTON: The US Senate voted almost unanimously on Thursday to slap new sanctions on Russia, putting President Donald Trump in a tough position by forcing him to take a hard line on Moscow or veto the legislation and infuriate his own Republican Party. The legislation all but dashes Trump's hopes for warmer ties with Moscow as his administration is dogged by congressional and special counsel investigations into Russian meddling in the 2016 US presidential election to sway it in Trump's favour. Russian President Vladimir Putin, who has repeatedly denied the conclusions of US intelligence agencies that Moscow interfered using cyber warfare methods, has threatened retaliation against the legislation. The Senate backed the bill, which also imposes sanctions on Iran and North Korea, by a margin of 98-2 with strong support from Trump's fellow Republicans as well as Democrats. The bill, which includes a provision that allows Congress to stop any effort by Trump to ease existing sanctions on Russia, will now be sent to the White House for Trump to sign into law or veto. It is the first major foreign policy legislation approved by Congress under Trump, who has struggled to advance his domestic agenda despite Republicans controlling the Senate and House of Representatives. The strong bipartisan support for the bill was a sharp contrast to the bitter partisan rancour during a debate over how to overhaul the US healthcare system. If Trump chooses to veto it, the bill is expected to garner enough support in both chambers to override his veto and pass it into law. The sanctions measure has already passed the House of Representatives by 419 to three votes. Republicans and Democrats have pushed for more sanctions partly as a response to the election allegations. Trump denies any collusion between his campaign and Moscow. Senator John McCain, a leading congressional voice calling for a firm line against Russia, said before the vote: "The United States of America needs to send a strong message to Vladimir Putin and any other aggressor that we will not tolerate attacks on our democracy." Putin said Moscow would only decide on how to retaliate once it had seen the final text of the proposed law. The bill would affect a range of Russian industries and might further hurt the Russian economy, already weakened by 2014 sanctions imposed after Russia annexed Crime from Ukraine. Besides angering Moscow, the legislation has upset the European Union, which has said the new sanctions might affect its energy security and prompt it to act, too. Iran, North Korea sanctioned The legislation also cracks down on Iran and North Korea for activities including their missile development programs and human rights abuses, including seeking to punish foreign banks that do business with North Korea. It also imposes restrictions on anyone involved in Iran?s ballistic missile program and those who do business with them. The sanctions also apply to Iran?s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps security force and major economic force. Earlier on Thursday, a senior White House aide said Trump could veto the pending legislation in order to push for a tougher deal, an idea that drew scepticism in Congress because his administration had spent weeks lobbying for a weaker bill. "He may sign the sanctions exactly the way they are or he may veto the sanctions and negotiate an even tougher deal against the Russians," White House Communications Director Anthony Scaramucci told CNN. Earlier on Thursday, Senator Bob Corker, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, told reporters: "I would guess that he (Trump) will sign it." What will Trump do? The White House said it would comment on the sanctions bill when they get it and have a chance to review it. A White House official said it could take a couple of days before the legislation gets to Trump's desk. On Thursday before the Senate vote, White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders said the Trump administration continues to support strong sanctions against Russia, North Korea and Iran, adding "we're going to wait and see what that final legislation looks like and make a decision at that point." Trump can impose new sanctions at any time through an executive order. "This bill doesn?t preclude him from issuing tougher sanctions. That doesn?t make any sense," said Edward Fishman, a former State Department official during the Obama administration who worked on US sanctions policy. Once Trump receives the bill, if he does not sign it, he has 10 days, excluding Sundays, before he must issue a veto and prevent the bill from becoming law automatically. If he opts for a veto, the bill can become law anyway if two-thirds of both the House and Senate vote for an override. Putin said on a visit to Finland on Thursday that Russia was "exercising restraint and patience, but at some moment we'll have to retaliate. It's impossible to endlessly tolerate this boorishness towards our country." Putin, at a joint news conference with Finnish President Sauli Niinisto, also spoke about Obama's order last December to seize Russian diplomatic property in the United States and to expel 35 Russian diplomats. "This goes beyond all reasonable bounds," Putin said. "And now these sanctions - they are also absolutely unlawful from the point of view of international law." COVER IMAGE: St. Basil's Cathedral is seen through a gate in Red Square in central Moscow, September 18, 2014. REUTERS/Maxim Zmeyev/File Photo