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  1. BID’AT Types and Definition بدعت کی تعریف اور اقسام پر تفصیلی بحث THE MEANING OF INNOVATION AND ITS TYPES & LAWS The literal meaning of ‘Bidat’ (Innovation) is a new thing. The Holy Quran states, “Say, “1 am not a new Rasool,” 7.2 ”The Creator of the heavens and earth,” 7.22 and “و رھبانیۃ ن ابتدعوا ھا ما کتبنھا علیھم”7.23. The literal meaning of Bid at has been used in these verses (i.c. to create, to make new, etc). Mulla Ali Qaari رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes, “Bidat is the action which has no past example.” 7.24 _ Mirqat Sharah Mishkaat, Baabul-Itisaam bil-Kitaab was­ Sunnah It is now used in three meanings, A new action that came to be after the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم. An action against the Sunnah which removes a Sunnat. Bad or false beliefs (aqaaid) that came to be afterwards. The first meaning of Bid at is divided into two categories, Hasana (Good Innovation) Sayyia (Bad Innovation) The second and third meanings of innovation refer only to a Bad Innovation. The second meaning was meant by the pious when they said, “Every Innovation is Bad (Sayyia).” The third meaning is meant by the Hadith, “Every Innovation is a deviance.” Thus, the Ahadith and rulings of the Ulama are not in conflict. According to the Shariah, Innovation (Bidat) refers to those beliefs or practices which were not prevalent in the visible lifetime of Rasoolullah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم and were produced afterwards. This results in Innovation within Shariah (Shar”i Bidat) to be of two types, Bidat-e-I’tiqaadi and Bidat-e-Amali. Bidat-e-l’tiqaadi (Innovation in Belief) are those false beliefs that were produced in Islam after The Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم. The beliefs of Jews, Christians, fire- worshippers and polytheists are not Bidat-e-I’tiqaadi because they were found in his time, also, these beliefs are not considered to be Islamic beliefs according to the Christians, etc. The beliefs of the Jabriya, Qadriya, Murjiya, Chakraalwi, Ghair-Muqallids and Deobandis are Bidat-e-I’tiqaadiya because they were made afterwards and these people consider them to be Islamic beliefs. Examples of this follow: The Deobandi belief that Allah عزوجل has power to speak lies, The Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم, is ignorant of Knowledge of the Unseen, thinking of Rasoolullah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم in Salaah is worse than thinking of donkeys and mules in it, etc. These impure beliefs have been innovated from the Century A.H. Reference for this from Shaami has already been given in the introduction of this book. Now follows proof of the Good Innovation (Bidat-e-Hasana). Allah عزوجل states,” وجعلنا فی قلوب الذین ابتدعوہ رافۃ و رحمۃ ط ورھبانیۃ ن ابتدعوا ھا ما کتبنھا علیھم الا ابتغائ رضوان اللہ فمار عواھا حق رعایتھا ” 7.25 He then says, ” فا تینا الذین امنوا منھم اجر ھم ” 7.26 This ayat proves that the Christians produced a Good Innovation, i.e. abstinence from the world. Allah عزوجل praised them for this and even rewarded them for it. Yes, He rebuked those who could not accomplish it. He then states, “فا تینا الذین امنوا منھم اجر ھم “7.27 Rebuke was not made for bringing about something new, but for not fulfilling it. We can deduce from this that the Good Innovation is something excellent and a means of reward. However, not keeping to it is bad. The Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم states that continuance in something makes that affair the best. For this reason, Muslims should complete hosting Meelads, etc. regularly. Rasoolullah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم is reported to have stated in a Hadith, “The person who invents in our deen a belief that is contrary to it is rejected (mardood).”7.28 – Mishkaat, Baabul-Itisaam We have translated ‘Maa’ as belief because the deen constitutes of beliefs, Deeds (amal) are their supplement. A person who doesn’t perform namaaz is a sinner but not someone out of the deen or a Kaafir. Mulla Ali Qaari رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes in the annotation of this Hadith, “و المعنی ان من احدث فی الاسلام رایا فھو مر دود علیہ مر دود علیہ اقول وصف امرنا بھذا اشارۃ الی امر الاسلام کمل “In other words, the belief invented in Islam contrary to it will have the person rejected. I say, “The description (wast) of ‘Haazal-Amr gestures that the affairs of Islam are complete.” – Mirqaatul­ Mafaateeh This proves that Innovation (Bidat) has been asserted towards beliefs, Once, someone came to Hadrat Ibn Umar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ and said, “[So-and-so] has sent you Salaam.” He replied, “I have information that he has become an Innovator (Bidati). If this is truly the case, do not convey my Salaam to him.” 7.30 ­Mishkaat, Baabu/-Imaan bil-Qadr How did this person become an Innovator? Rasoolullah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم said, “In my Ummat, there will be sinking in the earth, distortion of appearances and throwing of stones amongst the Qadriya people.” 7,31 -Ibid We can deduce that the person who sent the Salaam was from the Qadriya (he rejected the concept of fate (taqdeerj). Durr-e-Mukhtaar states, “Narnaaz performed behind an Innovator (Bidati) Imam is makrooh. Innovation (Bidat) is harboring that belief against the beliefs known from The Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم.” 7.32 – Kitaabus-Salaah, Baabul-lmaamat We ascertain from these extracts that Bidat applies to innovated as well as bad beliefs, and all of the strong warnings of punishment mentioned in the Ahadith concerning Innovation and Innovators are towards Bidat-e-I’tiqaadiya. The Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم states, “He who shows respect to an Innovator (Bidati) has helped in decimating Islam {i.e. one who has the Bidat-e-I’tiqaadia).” Maulwi Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi writes, “The Innovation which such strong threats were made against is Innovation in Beliefs, e.g. the innovation of the Khaarijies and Shias.” Fataawa Rasheedta, Vol.1. Kitaabul-Bidat, Pg. 90 Bidat-e-Amali (Innovation in Practice) is every action and doing that was produced after the time of Rasoolullah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم, irrespective of whether it is religious (deeni) or worldly, during or after the time of the Sahaaba رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ Mirqaat states, “According to the Shariah, Innovation is an action or practice that was not present in the Noble Messenger’s صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم time.” 7.33 – Baabul-Itisaam Under this very chapter, Ashiatul-Lam’aat states, “Any action that was created after the Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم is Bidat (Innovation).” In both of these extracts, neither is there any restriction of a religious action nor was the era of the Sahaaba considered. Any practice that took place after the time of the Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم, whether religious or worldly, is a Bidat, even if it occurred in the era of the Sahaaba. Yes, in general usage of speech, the innovations of the Sahaaba are called Sunnat-e-Sahaaba, not Bidat. This is usage. Otherwise, Hadrat Umar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ, himself said after fixing Taraweeh salaah with Jamaat, “This is indeed a very excellent innovation (Bidat).” 7.35 – Hadith Sharif, there are two categories of Innovation, Good and Bad (Bidat-e-Hasana & Bidat­e-Sayyia). Bidat-e-Hasana is the innovation that doesn’t go against any Sunnat, e.g. gatherings of Meelad, Madrassahs, exotic and new foods, printing the Quran and religious books, etc. Bidat-e-Sayyia is the innovation that is contrary to a Sunnat or ruins it, e.g, reading the Khutba of the luma and Eidain Salaah in a language other than Arabic (as the Sunnah is for it to be read in Arabic,. etc.) Bidat-e-Hasana is permissible. Rather, it is preferable (mustahab) and even compulsory (Waajib) at times. A Bad Innovation is either Makrcoh-e-Tahrimi or Haraam. It can also be Makroohi-e-Tanzeehi. We shall discuss this categorization later on. Proof of both Good and Bad Innovations follow. Under the Hadith, “و کل بدعۃ ضلالۃ” Ashiatul-Lam’aat states, “The Innovation that is in conformity to the principles and laws (of the Shariah) and Sunnah and which Qiyaas is made with is known as Bidat-e-Hasana. Whatever is against the above is known is a deviant Innovation.” – Vol. 1, Baabul-Itisaam. A Hadith states, “He who initiates a good practice in Islam receives its reward. The reward of those who act upon it will also be attained by the initiator, with none of their thawaab being decreased. He who initiates a bad practice in Islam accwnulates its sin and the sin of those who act upon it. Their sin will also not be lessened.” 7.38 – Miskhaat, Kitaabul-Ilm We can deduce from this that inventing a good practice in Islam is a means of reward, and innovating a bad one causes sin to be accumulated. Discussing the excellence of Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ, the introduction of the book Shaami states, ”The Ulama state that the following Ahadith are from the laws of Islam: “He who invents a Bidat accumulates the sin of all those who act upon it. The person who brings out a Good Innovation attains the reward of all who act upon it until the Day of Qiyaamat.” 7.39 This also proves that a Good Innovation causes thawaab to be attained while a Bad Innovation is a sin. Something that goes against a Sunnat is a Bad Innovation. This is proven by the following, “Any person who takes out a practice or opinion in our deen contrary to it is rejected.” .40 – Mishkaat, Baabul-Itisaam “Contrary to it [i.e. the deen)” means against the deen, Therefore, Shaikh Abdul-Haqq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes in the commentary of this Hadith, “It refers to something that is against the deen or something which changes it.” Ashiatul-Lam’aat Another Hadith states, “The Innovation produced by a nation causes the Sunnah of the same proportion to be lifted. Hence, holding on to the Sunnah is better than introducing an Innovation.” 7.42 – Mishkaat, Baabut-Itisaam, Section 3 Ashiatul-Lam’aat states in the annotation of this Hadith, “When bringing out an Innovation wipes out a Sunnah, then upholding the Sunnah will effectively erase the Innovation.” This narration and its annotation prove that a Bad Innovation is that which erases a Sunnah. Examples of this have already been given. Both Good and Bad Bidats should be properly understood and recognized.
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