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Captain Marvel Movie 2019

IMDb - 6.3/10 Rotten Tomatoes Description: Captain Marvel gets caught in the middle of a galactic war between two alien races. Initial release: March 8, 2019 (USA) Directors: Anna Boden, Ryan Fleck Budget: 152 million USD Music composed by: Pinar Toprak Screenplay: Anna Boden, Ryan Fleck, Nicole Perlman, Geneva Robertson-Dworet, Meg LeFauve, Liz Flahive, Carly Mensch
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Besides Condoms Here Are 13 Contraceptive Methods That Work Just As Effectively

Condoms while the most popular and justifiably reliable contraceptive method doesn't work for everyone. From latex allergies to excessive friction to just the curiosity of exploring a new method of contraception are all justified reasons to look for alternatives. Here is a curated list of possible alternatives that you could explore with your partner.

1. Combined Oral Contraceptive

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The pills primarily made for women are a combination of two hormones: estrogen and progesterone. These are taken for three weeks out of every four either as a daily tablet or less frequently in the form of a patch every week or vaginal ring every three weeks.

This method is over 99% effective (less than 1 woman out of every 100 will get pregnant each year when using it correctly). It works by preventing the release of an egg, thickening the cervical mucus to stop sperm getting through and thinning the lining of the womb to prevent an egg implanting and growing.

However, it's important to note that there is a very small risk of developing a blood clot (deep vein thrombosis), having a stroke or a heart attack, getting breast or cervical cancer while on the pill. For most women, the risks are far outweighed by the benefits of being on the pill but it is strongly advised to get on the pill after consulting a gynaecologist

2. Progesterone Only Pill (The Mini-Pill)

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Again for women, the pill contains only one hormone, progesterone (no oestrogen), and is taken every day without break and has to be taken within same 3-hour window each day without a break. Women may experience their periods to be irregular and unpredictable or they may even stop entirely. The pill is 99% effective, if used correctly however, even with lesser health risks there are chances of developing ovarian cysts.

3. Caps/ Diaphragms

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A flexible latex/ silicone device used with a spermicide gel to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering. One of the advantages include that It's a chemical-free alternative to hormone-based contraceptive methods, so there are no side effects or health risks at all. However, It can be messy and needs to be left in place for at least six hours for it to be 92 - 96% effective.

4. Fertility Awareness Apps And Devices

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Fertility awareness apps are based on modern algorithms and your smartphone to predict the woman's vaginal temperature, period and ovulation to work out when she's fertile but it's like one of the earliest forms of birth control - fertility awareness and 'natural' planning. It's a tiny window of a few days, but if you get the estimates wrong it can result in pregnancy.

However, if used entirely correctly, the app can be as effective as the pill. However, it's advisable to combine it with protection to be on the safer side.

5. Female Condoms

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If you can get the instructions right, and use this preventive well, it can have 79-95% effectiveness. It's a pretty unpopular method because of less demand which is mostly because people don't know about them. However, there is no reason why it wouldn't work just as effectively. '

6. Depo Shots

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 A dose of progesterone given by injection to women every 12 weeks. A great contraceptive, however, the side effects include weight gain for women and also it takes about a year to be fertile again for the woman after ceasing to continue this method. It is extremely effective and less than four women per thousand will become pregnant every two years when using this method. However, It's not ideal for long term use as can have a thinning effect on the bones.

7. Nexplanon Implant 

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This contraceptive is a matchstick-sized flexible rod placed under the skin of a woman's arm which releases progesterone. This works for 3 years straight by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus and thinning the womb lining. Periods may stop altogether for women or may become less frequent and lighter. 

Sometimes the pill is given (if suitable) in the first few months in addition to the implant to settle down bleeding. Common side effects may include headaches, mood swings, spots and breast tenderness but often improve after the first few months. However, with minimal side-effects, this is the most effective method available for women with less than 1 per thousand will become pregnant in a 3 year period and the best part is that the changes are reversible immediately on removal of the implant.

8. Copper IUD / Coil

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This is a small plastic T-shaped copper device which is placed inside the womb. Copper has properties that kill the sperm hence preventing fertilisation and implantation of eggs. This has no effect on ovulation so should not change the natural hormonal cycle. It's popular with women who need effective contraceptive, but do not want or cannot have hormones. However, it will usually make mensuration bleeding heavier, more painful and often prolonged. It is over 99% effective if placed properly and can also last for up to 10 years depending on the exact device used. 

9. Mirena IUS

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Again, a small plastic T-shaped device which is placed inside the womb and releases progesterone over a period of 5 years. Although this contains a hormone, It has a suppressive effect on the womb lining and thereby reduces or even stops periods, making it a good choice for those with heavy painful periods and is actually used for that reason even in women who do not need contraception. Over 99% effective and fertility returns immediately on removal of the IUS.

10. Jaydess

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A relatively new contraceptive, the smaller 'hormone coil' contains only about a quarter of the hormone dose of the Mirena and lasts for 3 years. It is even easier to fit into smaller wombs and may be more suitable for younger women who have not had children or for those who want an even lesser amount of hormone in their bodies. 9/10 women will continue to have their periods with this method although they are likely to be lighter and again, there may be initial spotting or irregular bleeding. It is more than 99% effective.

11. Sponges

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The sponge comes with added spermicide that helps prevent pregnancy. They're a single use option, and cannot be worn for more than 30 hours at a time just like a condom however obviously they last for longer.

The spermicide slows down the sperm and stops them from heading towards the egg, and the sponge itself covers your cervix, to block them if they do get there. They are easy to use: you just have to wet the sponge to activate the spermicide, and then the woman can insert it, as far up as you find comfortable. These also need to be left in your vagina for at least six hours after having ***, so you have to remember to include this in your 30-hour calculation.

However, there's no STI protection, and it can't be used while the woman is on her period.

12. The Patch

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With effectiveness over 91-99%, the patch is very similar to an implant, it works effectively because it can be stuck on the arm of the woman and forgotten about. It contains small amounts of hormones that get into the system. But if it falls off, its effectiveness is reduced.

13. Male Sterilisation Or Vasectomy

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Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization and permanent contraception. During this procedure, the male vas deferens are cut and tied or sealed so as to prevent sperm from entering into the urethra and thereby prevent fertilization of a female through sexual intercourse. it can be considered a permanent procedure.

PSA: It is important to keep in mind that unlike condoms a lot of these won't save you from sexually transmitted diseases.

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